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About Gaskets

In piping, a Gasket is sealing material placed between connecting flanges to create a static seal. This will maintain the leakage proof sealing in all operating conditions. Different types of gaskets are used to achieve the leak proof sealing between the pipe flange. The primary function of gaskets is to seal the irregularities of each face of the flange so that there will be no leakage of the service fluid from the flange joint.
Gaskets will inherit the properties of the materials from which they are manufactured. Gasket materials are used because of their resistance to certain chemicals (such as acids) or properties of being capable of withstanding extreme temperatures or pressures.

Types of Gasket Material

Non-Metallic Metallic – Ring Gasket Composite
Compressed Non-Asbestos Fibre Gasket (CNAF) Oval Ring Gasket Spiral Wound Gaskets
PTFE Gasket Octagonal Ring Gasket Camprofile Gaskets
Rubber Gasket Metal Jacketed Gasket

These can be made from CNAF (Compresses non-asbestos fibre), PTFE, Rubber, Teflon or Graphite. Non-metallic gaskets can compress easily with low tension bolting. They’re generally used for low pressure applications and low temperatures. One exception is graphite gaskets, which can be used for temperatures as high as 460 degrees centigrade. Rubber and elastomer gaskets are not used for pipelines used to transport hydrocarbons.

Metallic Gaskets
Metal is used for ring type joints in high-pressure applications, such as oil and gas supply production. RTJs are also used on valves and pipework, assemblies in refineries and other process industries. They seal by an initial line contact or a wedging action as the compressive forces are applied. Metal ring type gaskets are available with oval and octagonal cross sections. Octagonal include the BX type designed to seal pressure up to 20,000 psi, in accordance with API 6A pressure ratings.

Composite Gaskets
Composite gaskets are a combination of metal and non-metal material based on service requirement. Spiral wound, Metal Jacketed, and Kamprofile gasket are well known in composite gasket category. They’re used in a wide range of pressure and temperature services. Composite gaskets are cost effective as compared to metal gaskets, but careful handling is required. Composite gaskets are used on raised face, male-female, and tongue-and-groove flanges.

Dimensional Standards

Gasket dimensions are covered in the following standards.

  • BS 3381 – Metallic Spiral Wound Gaskets
  • ASME B 16.20 - Metallic Gaskets for pipe flanges
  • ASME B 16.21- Non-metallic Gaskets for pipe flanges.

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